In the earliest days of the web in 1990, web proxy servers were usually referred to as gateways.  In fact the very first web gateway was created at CERN by the original WWW team , headed by Tim Berners-Lee.

Gateways are effectively devices which are used to forward packets between different networks. These devices can vary in complexity from simple pass through devices to complex system which are able to understand and convert different protocols.   It was in 1993 that the name Web Proxy Server was chosen as a standard term to describe the different types of Web gateways.

Web Proxy Server

These can be further classified into two distinct categories:

Proxy Server – internet/firewall gateways which act in response to client/PC requests.

Information Gateway – gateways which act in response to server requests.

However these are quite broad specification and below you will find some details of the key properties of the proxy servers and associated gateways.  Remember that these classifications can be affected by any application software which is installed on the proxies so they are not necessarily just the simple servers you find on web proxy lists – which are normally just basic Glype installations.   Particularly you may find that destinations and transparency may sometimes  be modified.

Proxy Server Properties

These are the general properties which can be applied to any specific proxy server, there are variations which will affect these.

Transparency: these proxies do not modify the data passing through them. They will perform any filtering specified by rules but this will not affect the end result. The connection will be the same if it was direct or through the proxy server.

Control: the client will determine whether it is uses the proxy or not.  This is typically controlled on the client by specifying the address of the proxy or through client based software.

Destination: the final destination of any request is not affected by any intermediate proxy.  In fact a client or user will often be completely unaware of the existence of the proxy.

Proxies can provide all sorts of features some of which might affect these properties.   They can be used to provide specific access controls, filtering, logging and even simply to speed up access to remote web resources through caching features.

It is in corporate environments that the transparency properties of proxies has usually been modified.  Frequently these firewall proxy servers will sit in the DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) and control both inbound and outbound traffic.  They will accept network requests from clients and forward them out to the internet if approved, then relay the replies back to the clients.   Most of these will also operate caching services to ensure that duplicate requests don’t generate more network traffic and bandwidth charges.

The other advantage of the dual role proxies is that it can act as a single entry point for internet access.   This means that all requests can be logged and monitored allowing an element of control to web access through the company infrastructure.  It also allows replies to be monitored for harmful code such as malware and viruses, this is an important extra layer of security to protect the internal network.

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When you read about the internet, it’s usually about how it’s constantly expanding and growing but that’s not strictly true.   Although new information is being added all the time, the reality is that much of this is often inaccessible.

For instance take the example of one of the world’s most popular websites the BBC iPlayer.  It contains thousands of programmes, videos and radio broadcasts and indeed is updated every single day.   It’s a wonderful resource which is continually refreshed, yet unfortunately the site is not accessible when you are located outside the UK unless you use something like a video proxy to help you.

It’s an incredible situation, yet one that is becoming increasingly common – the internet is becoming compartmentalised, split into geographical sectors controlled by the internet’s big players.   The method used is something called geo-blocking or locking and the majority of large web sites use it to some extent.    Now the method has been criticised from all sorts of civil liberty organisations. Indeed the EU itself has made criticism which you can find here because it also undermines it’s concept of a Single Free Market.

The technology implemented varies slightly from site to site, yet it’s basically the same – record IP address and look up it’s location from a central database of addresses. So when you try and visit the BBC web site to watch a David Attenborough definition, if your IP address isn’t registered in the UK then you’ll get blocked.

Planet Earth Documentaries on BBC iPlayer

It’s extremely frustrating especially for someone from the UK, and so the workarounds were created.  Now I mentioned above the concept of a video proxy to bypass these and it does work to some extent.  You bounce your connection off an intermediate server based in the location you need, which effectively hides your true IP address and location.

However it’s important to remember that from 2016 onwards simple proxies no longer work on any of the major media sites.  Unfortunately  they can be detected and all the sites block them automatically.

However the concept does still work just like the old video proxy method, it’s just you’ll need a securely configured VPN server which cannot be detected.  This works in the same way hiding your real address and instead presenting the address of the VPN server.  So using this method, you can watch any media site from Hulu to Netflix and the BBC irrespective of your location.   Here’s one in action using a proxy to watch video content from the BBC –

There is one other method, I should mention which you can find discussed in this article here – http://www.theninjaproxy.org/content-filtering/smart-dns-vs-vpn/, it’s called Smart DNS and is a simpler alternative to using a VPN service.

It’s what literally millions of people around the world are doing right now, relaxing in the sun whilst watching the News on the BBC or their favorite US entertainment channel.  There are a lot of these services available now, but only a few that work properly.  Our recommendation doesn’t look like a TV watching VPN at first glance simply because they keep that functionality low key.  Yet for over a decade it has supported all the major media channels in a variety of countries.

It’s called Identity Cloaker – You can try their 10 day trial here – Identity Cloaker

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When we are discussing the technological characteristics of proxies there’s one term which you will see used very often – ‘transparent’.    It can actually be used in two distinct ways when it comes to proxies.  The first is to refer to a definition which implies transparent proxying ensures that any user will see no difference to the original request whether it goes direct to the server or through a proxy.   In an ideal world pretty much all legitimate proxies would be considered ‘transparent’.

Proxies are however significantly more advanced from the early years when this original definition was created.  The term ‘transparent proxying’ now has much more meaning.  The extended definition means that transparent proxying ensures that the client software is not aware of the existence of the proxy server in the communication stream.   This is unusual because the client was usually configured to use a proxy, perhaps by the internet settings in it’s browser configuration.    Software would then make a decision in it’s requests and perhaps distinguish between proxy and direct requests.

When transparent proxying, in it’s modern context, is used the router is programmed to redirect the request through the proxy not the client. This means that the proxy can actually be used to intercept and control all HTTP requests that are targeted by outbound connections.  The request can even be parsed or perhaps even filtered and redirected.  This control allows the network to configure access control rules on all outbound requests,  A company network could use these to ensure unsuitable requests are not being made from a corporate network e.g. illegal web sites.

This level of transparent proxying leaves the client completely unaware of the existence of an intermediate proxy server.   There are some caveats though and the proxy can be detected in certain circumstances.  For  example there is little point in investing in a USA proxy buy if the server only supports HTTP/1.1 because the protocol makes no allowance for transparency in proxying information.

One of the main issues and indeed worries is that allowing completely transparent proxying might cause other issues particularly in the client side applications.  For example one of the fundamentals of using proxies in a corporate network is to reduce traffic by caching locally.  This could cause all sorts of problems if the behaviour of the proxy cache effects communication between the destination server and the client application.

Further Reading – http://www.changeipaddress.net/us-ip-address-for-netflix/

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The importance of the data transport protocol is of course crucial to a global information network like the world wide web.  Unfortunately the HTTP/1.0 protocol has some inherent issues which are directly related to performance which have been largely addressed in version 1.1 of the protocol.  It is expected that future developments will further improve the performance of the protocol.

One issue is related to the three way handshake that is required by TCP before it can establish the connection. It is important to remember that during this handshake phase that no application data is transferred at all.  from the user perspective the delay will simply appear as latency in getting the initial connection established.   This three way handshake involves a considerable overhear preceding data transfer and has a noticeable effect on performance particularly in busy networks.

This problem is made worse by using the HTTP 1.0 protocol which makes extensive use of new connections.  In fact every new request requires a new TCP connection to be established, complete with a new three way handshake.  This was originally implemented as a measure to boost performance because it was thought that it would avoid long lived idle connections being left dormant.  The reasoning was that it was more efficient to establish new connections when required as the data burst would be small and frequent.

However the web has not developed like this and it’s is much more than a series of short html files quickly downloaded.  Instead the web is full of large documents and pages embedded with videos and images.  Add to the the multitude of applets, code and other embedded objects and this soon adds up.  What’s more each of these objects usually has it’s own URL and so requires a separate HTTP request for each.    Even if you invest in a high quality US proxy you’ll find some impact on speed using HTTP 1.0 simply due ti the huge number of connection requests it generates.

There were modifications made to increase the perceived performance from the user perspective.  For one, the use of multiple simultaneous connections was allowed and this would allow client software like browsers to download and render multiple components on a page.  This meant that the user wasn’t left waiting as individual components were loaded separately.  However although parallel connections increase performance on an individual level, they generally have a very negative impact on the network as a whole.   The process is still inefficient and allowing parallel connections does little to mitigate this situation.

As any network administrator knows, focussing on a single aspect of network performance is rarely a good idea and will almost never improve overall network performance.    The persistent connection feature was introduced to help solve this, and was added as a non-standard extension to HTPP 1.0 and included by default with HTTP 1.1.

Further Reading: Proxies Blocked by BBC Abroad

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The ability to remotely login to a machine that’s miles away from you is perhaps one of the internet’s most popular applications.  It might not seem so, but being able to access a remote host without a hard wire connection has transformed many areas of IT particularly in support and development.   Obviously you need an account on the host that you are trying to login to, but actually using the machine as if you are at the console is extremely useful in many situations.

Two of the most famous applications for remote login access when using a TCP/IP based network (e.g like the internet) are Telnet and Rlogin.   The most famous and probably used by every IT support technician over the age of 25 is Telnet, installed as standard in almost every TCP/IP implementation.   It seems relatively simple but this actually hides some great functionality not least the ability to Telnet from one operating system to another.  It’s incredibly useful to be able to sit at a Microsoft Windows machine with multiple command interfaces open in separate windows to Unix and Linux machines at the same time.

Remember these terminal windows are actually like physically sitting at the remote host’s console.  This is is completely different from just using a web session or using something like an Italian to stream RAI player abroad like this.  Each individual character that you type is entered into the remote host, there’s no streaming, no relaying or filtering.  Obviously there are some restrictions about running a terminal windows on a completely different systems.  However Telnet does an option negotiation phase between the client and server to ensure that only services which are supported at both ends are available.

The other famous remote login application is called Rlogin which was developed from Berkeley Unix.   This application was initially only available on Unix Systems however it has been ported to most other operating systems now and you can Rlogin between Windows and Linux.  Both of these applications use the Client/Server configuration – the client is the system where the initial connection is established to the remote server which is the target.

Nowadays, the most popular of the two application – Telnet has become much more sophisticated.  Over the years lots of functionality has been added to Telnet whereas Rlogin remains quite simple and unmodified.  However it should be noted that although Rlogin lacks features, it is a simple and stable remote access application.

The author – John Herrington has worked in IT for over thirty years in a variety of roles from support to latterly Network manager at a large bank.   He now works for himself and runs one of the largest paid VPN services on the West Coast of America. He obviously works remotely a lot of the time but will rarely use Telnet as it’s too insecure!

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There are similar challenges for network administrators in corporate networks and those running firewalls for authoritarian regimes about the use of proxies and VPN services.  The issue is that not only do they allow individuals the freedom to conduct their internet activity without being tracked, a VPN will also prevent most aspects of logging taking place too.

If you imagine a company network it means that an individual could potentially conduct all sorts of behaviour from a company computer whilst sitting in a corporate office whilst at work.   They could be downloading films, streaming Netflix or something perhaps much more sinister even.  Obviously this is potentially a risk to both the network infrastructure and also potentially to the company’s reputation.

So how do you block the use of VPNs and proxies?  For a corporate network there are actually many more options, and the simplest is probably to stop any sort of VPN and proxy being used in the first place.   You can lock down the advanced settings in a web browser quite simply, for example the Internet Explorer Administration Kit (IEAK) allows you to configure and deploy an IE package which cannot be modified onto every client in your organisation.  This stops proxies being used manually and VPN clients can be blocked by ensuring that  standard users have no administrative access to their desktops.

It is certainly easier to block any installation than trying to track the use of VPNs particularly some of the most sophisticated ones.   For example although you could potentially monitor logs in firewalls and routers for specific IP addresses which looked like VPNs some services allow you to switch to a range of IP addresses – Hide My VPN like the one in this video demonstrates:

As you can see if a service is rotated then identifying the VPN by it’s IP address is much more difficult.  However blocking installation of the highlighted service Identity Cloaker can also be difficult as it has a mobile version which can be run directly from a USB disk.

You can see that proxies are fairly irrelevant today as they can be easily blocked, also most content filters can detect their use too.   Significantly their use has now dropped globally for additional reasons mainly that they are mostly detected by websites which operate regional restrictions.   It is the more sophisticated Virtual private networks which are the difficulty, particularly those equipped with various VPN hider technologies and advanced encryption.

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For years people have used VPNs for all sorts of reasons, but it’s origin lay quite simply in the security they provided.  International companies will normally insist that their employees use VPN services when remotely connecting back to their servers using the internet.  It makes sense, otherwise important information and credentials would be trusted to the owners of coffee shop wifi or the administrator of your local Premier Lodge or hotel chain.

The concept is simple, create an encrypted tunnel which ensures that all the data which normally is passed in clear text instead is encrypted and unreadable.  Of course, this security means that as well as being safe from computer criminals and identity thieves – it’s also secure from intelligence services and state controlled snoopers too.  It should come as no surprise that anyone who opposes free speech generally hates VPNs and the protection that they give.

So when we hear stories about different organisations and companies from the Netflix to the Chinese Government trying to block VPNs what are they doing.  Well it depends, obviously the situation that leads to thousands of BBC iPlayer VPN not working is going to be slightly different to the Chinese throwing billions at the great firewall of China.   However the general techniques are basically the same as a small company want to achieve the same thing.

One of the most common options is to block the ports used by these services.  Most VPN tunnelling protocols operate on standard ports, e.g using PPTP or LTP.  They need to establish these connections to transfer and receive data, without them the service won’t function.  Other methods include identifying and blocking specific IP addresses or ranges which are being used by VPN services.   It is these two methods that are mostly used by the big media companies like Hulu and the BBC.

These methods can be time consuming though and it’s possible to switch address and some services allow you to configure alternative ports too. The Chinese Government as you would expect have gone one step forward and use more sophisticated techniques like deep packet inspection.   These involved looking at the data itself to identify if a VPN is being used to transport it.  For example if you are unable to read any data because none of it’s in clear text then there is the likelihood that it is being encrypted.   Of course, there are other methods which encrypt data like SSL so you need to be careful that you don’t block other traffic, it’s a risk that the Chinese would probably be happy to take however.

Even these methods are not foolproof and VPN companies can scramble things like the meta data to make identifying the use of a VPN even harder.  It is worthwhile noting that many people in China still use VPNs routinely and so if the huge resources available to the Chinese State can’t block their use – we should be ok to have a BBC VPN like this for the foreseeable future.

 

 

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TCP provides lots of additional services which have been added over it’s lifetime one of the more useful ones is that of the virtual circuit transport service. There are three distinct phases in the life of any TCP connection – establishment, transferring data and termination.    There are many applications including things like remote login and those that enable file transfer which are perfectly suited to using a virtual circuit type service.    Many other applications are suited better towards a transaction based service which is basically a client request followed by a server response.  This can be explained by briefly detailing it’s characteristics:

1: Any overhead of connection establishment and the subsequent termination should be minimized.  Ideally one request should be sent followed by the corresponding receive before any other packets are sent.

2: Latency should be reduced to the sum of the round trip time (RTT) plus the server processing time (SPT).

3: Server should be capable of detecting duplicate requests and not processing them again.

A very important application uses this type of service which forms the very backbone of the internet – the Domain Name System (DNS).   Other common applications such as the BBC VPN many people use to bypass the numerous region locking systems which exist online.   The other important decision that an application developer must consider is whether to use UDP or TCP for the transport.  The difficulty is that TCP simply provides too many features for an efficient transaction whilst  UDP doesn’t really provide enough.   Normally UDP is used simply because it avoids the overhead of TCP connections but this involves adding the features that are required like retransmission, dynamics timeouts and congestion avoidance.

The solution that is a better alternative than this is to provide an additional transport layer to provide more efficient handling for the transactions.  The transaction protocol which is commonly used now by many applications is called T/TCP defined in RFC 379 – extending the TCP protocol for transactions.

Remember most TCPs require 7 segments to open and close a connection.  An additional three more segments are added to deal with the requests and replies (initial and the one responding to the ACK).  In addition it may be necessary to add extra control bits to deal with other functionality and connection information required to complete the transactions properly.

Further Reading:

James Hibbert: Polskie Proxy, Haber Press, 2017

 

 

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The BBC haven’t always streamed the BBC News over the internet, in fact it was noticeably missing from the initial releases of the BBC iPlayer for a few years. There are a few other programmes which were omitted, for example there was always a delay put on Match of the Day presumably for contractual reasons. However now that BBC has it’s own dedicated 24 hour News channel, it’s great news to see that it’s simultaneously broadcast live online on their web site.

You can see the tab illustrated which leads to the live TV streaming section including the BBC News channel.   However many people outside the UK will have problems finding this link as it simply doesn’t exist on the version you get outside the UK.  It’s called the ‘International version’ and anyone not in the UK will be redirected to this site.   The site is good but it’s missing all the TV stations and the BBC iPlayer functionality, even if you go there directly you’ll get blocked whenever you try and play anything.

Here’s a quick video entitled – BBC News Streaming over the Internet which you can also watch below:

As you can see the trick is to hide your location before you connect to the website. By logging on to a server physically located in the UK, you can access any of the BBC without issue simply because it will see the server’s UK address and not your real one. It has the added bonus of adding a layer of security and privacy to your internet connection too. This is because the connection between your computer and the VPN server is entirely encrypted which means both your identity is private but also all credentials you pass through the VPN are safe too.

It should be added that all the media companies try and block access to their sites through intermediary servers like proxies and VPNs. However there are still several companies who’s servers work perfectly well for accessing the BBC from anywhere in the world.

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RTE is the national broadcaster of the Republic of Ireland and has been involved in broadcasting TV channels since 1961.  It was actually an early adopter of radio broadcasting yet Ireland was relatively slow in getting involved in TV broadcasts – the BBC was involved in the 1920s for example.  There was some television broadcasting in Ireland through the Northern Ireland services run by the BBC although this was completely unofficial.

The Irish Government until the late 1950s considered TV to be a luxury which wasn’t a priority however it changed it’s opinion as the popularity rose.  A committee was formed to investigate how to set up an Irish broadcasting service (for the lowest possible outlay) and it’s initial form was something like the commercial services from the UK.

The first broadcast was on New Year’s Eve, 1961 at 19:00 hours and included a speech from the President who described what the service would be.   Many other messages were then broadcast from religious figures before a live concert was shown live from the Gresham Hotel in Dublin.

The Irish people took to the new medium almost immediately particularly as a way to discuss topics and current affairs.   Suddenly topics like abortion, religion and contraception were discussed openly in chat shows and tv studios broadcast across Ireland.  The origin of many of these chat shows lies with the first and arguably the most famous one – The Late Late Show which began in July 1962 and which still runs today.

Although RTE was relatively late to the world of TV broadcasting, however it caught up quickly.  In 1962, RTE expanded it’s broadcasts to include 625 line transmissions several years ahead of the BBC for instance.  In 1969, RTE broadcast the Wimbledon finals in colour over the next few years more and more broadcasts were transmitted in colour.

Rte has expanded it’s channels over the last few years and also branched out into the world of internet broadcasting. RTE Player is the channels broadcasting application and it can be found at the following address – http://www.rte.ie/player/.

Unfortunately the channel is not directly available over the internet outside Ireland although they can be accessed in certain areas. In Northern Ireland particularly near the border there is some overspill of the signal. Also the channels were made available over Sky although there has been some disputes over licensing so certain events usually sports shows are not available in Northern Ireland.

There is however a method where you can watch RTE Player from outside Ireland.   This involves hiding your location behind an intermediate server which means that you can appear to be from whatever country you require.  So to access RTE Player you would merely connect through to an Irish proxy server first there is an explanation here – http://www.iplayerabroad.com/bbc-iplayer-ireland/.

What happens is that the proxy acts as a buffer between the RTE web site and your computer.   When the website performs a lookup on the connecting IP address it will receive that of the server and not the client.  As long as that server is based in the Republic of Ireland then all of the RTE website will be accessible.

This method works for all geo-restricted sites although there are a few exceptions.    Many websites now are able to detect and block the use of proxies, and most users have switched to using VPN.  These encrypted and secure services are much more difficult to detect than simple proxy servers and can be used in the same way to hide a user’s physical location.

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You’d never hear the word ‘proxy’ outside of an IT department a few years ago, but now everyone uses them. This post is specifically how to use a proxy to watch the BBC iPlayer application in the USA. Now firstly a quick introduction to the problem, the internet is not open or unrestricted in fact it’s more compartmentalised than ever before. One of the reasons, is a technology called ‘region locking’ or ‘geo-targeting’ which have very similar meanings.

These technologies are basically designed to ensure that certain websites are only accessible from specific physical locations. It sounds crazy, but it’s true – where you are based physically has a huge impact on what you can access online. I’m not talking about the stupid filtering that paranoid governments do either, these restrictions are deployed by the web sites themselves. Mostly it’s to do with money, profit or copyright laws but they affect a huge proportion of the world’s best web sites.

I would certainly put the BBC and it’s application BBC iPLayer as one of the best web sites on the internet. You get access to all the BBC broadcasts live, something like six or seven 24 hour TV channels plus all the radio channels. You can also watch stuff for about six weeks after using the BBC iPlayer, all quality programmes with not an advert to be seen. Unfortunately it’s only accessible in the UK, if you try and access from the USA you’ll get blocked.

Which is where our friend the proxy comes in, a server that sits between you and the web site you visit basically hiding your real location. The trick is to use a proxy server that sits in the country you need access to, which for the BBC is of course the United Kingdom.

So here we go – How to watch the BBC iPlayer USA simply by using a proxy server.

As you can see this is on a computer, the software demonstrated is called Identity Cloaker and actively hides your true location when you visit any website. In this instance, the BBC sees the UK proxy server and assumes that is your location and as such everything works, you can even watch the BBC News.

Now a few years ago pretty much any proxy server would work, even the free ones you could find online. However this has now changed and there’s a few things you should bare in mind when looking for a way to watch the BBC iplayer in the USA.

Speed – it’s everything when streaming video, otherwise whatever you’re watching will buffer all the time.
Discretion – don’t sign up to a proxy/vpn service which openly advertises bypassing the BBC blocks and has it’s logos all over the site. They will get blocked or closed down.
Security – last year the BBC started actively blocking these connections from proxies. They need to be securely configured so as not to be detected.
Other Countries – If you want to access websites and TV stations in other countries, you’ll need access to proxies in those countries too.

Identity Cloaker is our recommendation because of it’s speed and security, plus it’s very reasonably priced.   Try the 10 day trial first to make sure it works well for you.  Although the core program is software to run on your computer/laptop you can also connect through from a tablet or smartphone by creating the connection manually.  It’s easy to do and there’s a guide here.

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