There are a variety of methods that can be used to assign an IP address to a windows client. You can obviously assign directly by allocating a static address or by using a variety of other methods such as ARP, BOOTP or DHCP. The main methods will be discussed briefly below:

Static Configuration
The majority of network enabled devices including Windows computers can be assigned an IP address manually. This is normally allocated in the TCP/IP properties on windows machines and in the network configuration options on other devices like games consoles and media streamer for instance. It is important that although any address can be allocated here, it should be the correct address for the network configuration. You should also ensure that the IP address is unique on that network,otherwise network connectivity will be affected for both clients with duplicate addresses.

RARP and BOOTP
Two of the main options for assigning an ip address dynamically are Reverse ARP (RARP) and the Bootstrap protocol (BootP). RARP requires a server which maintains a list of hardware addresses and a pool of IP addresses to be allocated. The server would normally be contacted via a broadcast initiated from the client before an ip address is allocated and then assigned to the hardware id. There are often issues with this method of address allocation though:

  • Clients broadcasts will sometimes not reach the RARP server. This might be for various reasons but is often to do with network topology, perhaps a router is incorrectly configured on the network. This can be resolved by configuring an IP helper address on any routers. It may also be simpler to configure the router to be a RARP servers depending on the model.
  • RARP server does not have an IP address which corresponds to the client’s hardware address.

Mostly due to various inefficiencies RARP is rarely used in modern networks and is usually replaced by the more sophisticated BOOTP to assign IP addresses.  This runs over UDP and sets up a port for client requests and another port is assigned for server responses.   The response from the BOOTP server actually contains additional information such as the address of the local gateway.   BootP suffers similar problems to RARP mainly to do with network connectivity.  UDP often suffers connectivity problems and the routers should be configured to allow UDP traffic and without interruption,  other problems can be with access lists filtering out the UDP ports.

Further Reading

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